Known since antiquity, tuberculosis has markedly decreased since the discovery of BCG vaccine in 1921 by Calmette-Guerin, and the marketing of anti-TB antibiotics. However, current data are being modified with the HIV pandemic, with recrudescence cases, especially in Africa and the USA.
A – Physiopathology:
TB originates in the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or bovis africanum), discovered in the late nineteenth century. It is a bacillus, alcoholics, and acid resistant. It is conveyed by saliva droplets, especially during coughing, its mode of transmission is air, and the first inoculation is an inoculation chancre in paremchyme lung.
This primary infection is either overt or latent.
Primo latent infection: Totally asymptomatic, she rose with a TST in the IDR (Intra Dermo reaction) in a non-vaccinated.
Primary patent infection: There is a weakening of the condition, with weight loss and fatigue, accompanied by a cough and a fever, and chest X-ray shows the inoculation chancre.
TB disease is then said during a lung infection to BK, following the primary infection or exogenous reinfection, or, more commonly, endogenous reactivation of existing organization infected.
- extreme ages of life
- Immunosuppression, faisaint following a pathology (HIV) or consequence of treatment (chemotherapy, high dose corticosteroids.