Archive for the ‘Geriatrics’ Category

Swallowing Disorders

Thursday, November 19th, 2009

What happens when you swallow?
Swallowing is an act usually unconscious, although it requires precision and rapidity in its development.
Swallowing occurs in 3 phases:

  • oral stage,
  • pharyngeal phase,
  • esophageal phase.

Oral Phase:
Properly: Formation of food bolus by chewing. The tongue and palate push the bolus towards the back of the mouth.


Pharyngeal phase:
Properly: swallowing reflex, lowering the epiglottis, pharynx closure, the passage of bolus into esophagus.
Incorrectly: Reflex swallowing delayed or absent, risk of aspiration, airway closure is not assured.
Esophageal phase:
Properly: Phase entirely reflex, it is a final phase of swallowing.
Incorrectly: The food particles that have not been evacuated during swallowing can be inhaled during inspiration.
Swallowing disorder = wrong
Responsible for complications:

  • broncho-pulmonary complications,
  • Undernutrition progressive
  • asphyxiation in cases of obstruction.


Physiology of Aging

Tuesday, November 17th, 2009

Old age: a biological phenomenon is inevitable, universal for all forms of life be it animal, vegetable and human. This starts from birth.
Aging physiology:
4 changes:
alteration of neurotransmitters (poor communication between brain cells),
alteration of cell membranes,
crosslinking of collagen,
apoptosis (programmed cell death), these changes have consequences:
destruction of the respiratory capacity,
loss of lung function (30% between 40 and 75 years)
neurological damage,
reduced immunity
declining hormones.
Aging: is all the irreversible adverse changes altering the means by which an organization ensures its balance of biological, psychological, sociological.

Pathological aging:
The musculoskeletal system (bones, muscles, joints):
Bones #: 2 types of cells
osteoblasts (bone building)
osteoclasts (bone destroying)
From 20 years age in a loss of bone mass (about 0.5% per year). (more…)

The Charter of Rights for Older

Thursday, November 13th, 2008

Respect for the elderly

  • Even sick, disabled, vulnerable, dependent, or insane, the person retains its rights and FDI guard duties to her.
  • The charter was created in 1987 and amended in 1996.
  • The elderly in hospital or institution is able to refer to know and claim their rights.

Contents of charter
1. Lifestyle Choices:
Anyone dependent care freedom to choose their lifestyle.
2. Home & Environment:
The place of living of the dependent elderly, home or personal property, must be chosen by it and adapted to their needs.
3. A social life despite disability:
Anyone dependent must retain the freedom to communicate, move and participate in the life of society.
4. Presence and role of family:
The maintenance of family relationships and friendship networks is essential for the frail elderly.
5. Wealth and income:
Anyone dependent must maintain control of his assets and income available.
6. Enrichment activity:
Anyone dependent should be encouraged to maintain operations.
7. Freedom of conscience and religious practice:
Anyone dependent must participate in religious or philosophical choice. (more…)

Abuse of the elderly

Tuesday, November 4th, 2008

“Any act or omission, if it affects the life, physical integrity or mental or freedom … or seriously jeopardizes the development of his personality and / or damaging its financial security.” Council of Europe , November 1987.
Any action or lack of action that are an affront to Life and Human Rights.
The abuse is just as active and passive and reveals the concept of negligence.
Neglect is defined as a defect, error of care, implementation, lack of attention …

This exercise to someone, either actively or by omission of violence that undermine his person, his integrity corporelleet / or psychological, financial security or freedom.

(Hallo Abuse)

Since 1995 he has been creating ALMA is a network of detection and action on elder abuse.
It is an association of retired volunteers and professional sectors: social, medical, legal, whose role is to: prevent, understand and listen, advise and guide. (more…)

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