Archive for the ‘Cardiology’ Category

Discovery of a new ligament in the knee

Sunday, December 1st, 2013

How is it possible that with so many advances in medicine and technology has yet unknown areas of our body? That we wondered to know that just discovered a new ligament in the knee that apparently could be behind one of the most common knee injuries: a torn cruciate ligament.

Those responsible for this finding, which has been published in the “Journal of Anatomy”, were the surgeons of the University Hospital of Leuven, Belgium, who have identified this ligament that until now had only suspicions, ligament anterolateral and have clearly established the structure and function of the joint.

Discovery of a new ligament in the knee

The knee joint

The knee joint is surrounded by four main ligaments crosslinked between the bones of the femur and lower leg, which provide stability and prevent excessive movement of the limbs occurs. However, the anatomy of the knee is very complex and long several international groups have explored the less-defined structures of the joint. (more…)

Benefits of cardio

Thursday, May 30th, 2013

Cardiovascular exercise, also known as aerobic exercise, uses large muscles and can be done for a long time. This type of exercises makes the body to use oxygen more efficiently and provides maximum benefits to the heart, lungs and circulatory system, among many other benefits.

A minimum of 20 minutes of cardiovascular exercise three or four days per week is sufficient to maintain a good level of physical conditioning, but if you want to lose weight, must be some kind of cardiovascular exercise four days more than 30 minutes per week. Then you are talking about the countless benefits of this type of exercise.

Benefits of cardio

The best way to burn fat

According to different studies, cardiovascular exercise is one of the best ways to burn fat, since it only requires half the time of a combined routine. In addition, fatigue is less. (more…)

A Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery Scar Makes it possible for Great Beauty Effects and Heals Reliably Quick

Tuesday, December 25th, 2012

For almost fifty years (a long time), the only surgical incision routinely employed to perform an wide open heart procedure is affiliated with using an ugly, foot lengthy, very painful scar by the breast bone. Oftentimes wide open heart surgery sufferers are fondly known as “members of the Zipper club”. Effectively, important things are dramatically altering as a result of minimally invasive heart surgery tactics and skilled surgeons by using a unique curiosity in an easier and speedier restoration for their patients.

The sternotomy implies breaking the breast bone in its entire size (8″ to 12″) using a specifically constructed observed. The new technique contains a 2″ extended incision among the ribs on the side of the chest (minithoracotomy) without having any bone chopping. (more…)

Heart failure

Saturday, October 30th, 2010

Inability of the heart to assume its function of pump and propulsion of blood to meet the metabolic needs of the organization. Heart failure is the result of most cardiac pathologies, it is common and serious, because its mortality is estimated at 50% at 5 years.

Heart failure (or ventricular) may be secondary to left:

  • Hypertension by chronic increase of afterload with left ventricular hypertrophy
  • A valvular (narrowing or aortic insufficiency or mitral)
  • Ischemic heart disease (reduction or stoppage of blood flow in one or more arteries of the heart),
  • Hypertensive cardiomyopathy, toxic, or deficiency (beri beri)
  • Obstructive cardiomyopathy
  • Myocarditis (myocarditis, inflammatory rheumatic or Chagas disease, common in South America)
  • Arrhythmias,
  • Profound anemia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Ischemic by coronary atherosclerosis

Heart failure (or ventricular) is right most often follows:

  • Left heart failure + + +
  • Pulmonary hypertension, itself caused by a lung disease (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary embolism)
  • CHD
  • Mitral stenosis
  • Chronic lung disease

Chronic heart failure:
Often a consequence of hypertension in the small or large circulation, during which the heart muscle to pump against the increased pressure in the vessels. The ventricle must provide more work. (more…)

Myocardial Infarction

Monday, November 23rd, 2009

Necrosis confined to a more or less tissue myocardial ischemia resulting from a sudden coronary artery. During a myocardial infarction, irrigation is no longer; deprived of blood and oxygen, the myocardial cells suffer and die, releasing their cardiac enzymes, with destruction of surrounding tissue. Men are affected twice as often as women. Myocardial infarction is one of the most common causes of death.
Today, the very definition of myocardial infarction tends to disappear in favor of acute coronary syndrome ST more versus acute coronary syndrome not included ST.

The occlusion of one or more coronary arteries is almost always due to the formation of a thrombus (clot) on a plaque consisting of cholesterol deposits against the inner arterial wall. This condition occurs most often in patients with risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle.

In half the cases, infarction occurs after a period shorter or longer during which the subject suffers from angina.
The pain (tightness, burning, sometimes crushing) are felt behind the breastbone (retrosternal), and can radiate to the left arm to the jaw, sometimes in the back. They disappear in a few minutes rest, sometimes with the use of a spray nitro.
In the other half of the cases, stroke is opening, that is to say that there are no warning signs. It manifests itself by severe pain sharp retro sternal (such as angina but longer and more intense). The pain may radiate to the arm, jaw and back. It is often constrictive and accompanied by anxiety and feeling of impending death. (more…)

The Cardiogenic Shock

Monday, November 23rd, 2009

It is defined as a state of hypo-perfusion tissue associated with dysfunction of the heart pump. Its main cause is myocardial infarction in acute phase.
Cardiogenic shock from myocardial infarction is associated:

  • the extent of necrosis of the left ventricular mass mainly
  • a mechanical complications: cardiogenic shock secondary
  • septal rupture responsible for CIV
  • acute mitral regurgitation due to rupture or dysfunction pillar of mitral
  • much more rarely, rupture of the free wall of left ventricle in charge of tamponade.
  • the extension of an infarction less than the right ventricle

In addition to signs of acute infarction, there are signs of tissue hypoperfusion:

  • neurological signs: agitation, confusion, stupor,
  • Signs peripheral coldness, pallor, mottling, cyanosis,
  • Renal signs: oligo-anuria,
  • hemodynamic signs: systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg, toe pressure differential pressure, tachycardia with pulse spinning,
  • signs of elevated filling pressures left (pulmonary edema, gallop …) and right (jugular turgor, hepato-jugular reflux).


The Cardiac Innervation

Sunday, November 22nd, 2009

The heart muscle does not require external stimulation to contract, but the autonomic nervous system exerts a considerable influence on the latter.
The control centers of the cardiac autonomic nervous system located in the medulla oblongata: the cardio accelerator center plans neuronal extensions even neurons segments T1 -> T5 spinal cord, which synapse with postganglionic neurons of cervical lymph and upper chest, from where they are nerve fibers synapse with sinus and atrioventricular nodes.
The cardiovascular center inhibitor, it has the nerve fibers which leave the medulla oblongata to the heart via the nerve X.

The phenomena of electrical stimulation:
The cells are pacemakers in the sinus node, the atrioventricular node and atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His). The sinus node is located in the wall of the right atrium. It is the primary pacemaker center: typically, the sinus node depolarizes spontaneously 70 times per minute, and mark the pace of all contractile cells. (more…)


Friday, November 21st, 2008


All chest pain event related to a “narrowing of the size” of one or more coronary arteries. The coronary arteries are the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle.

Clinical Data

Clinical examination was unremarkable.
The resting ECG was completely normal except for a painful crisis.
Any interrogation can find angina:
with chest pain to left arm
to pain on exertion and rest
pain in 3 to 4 minutes,
took to heart in a vise.


Suffering infarction: ischemia is associated with a mismatch between needs and the oxygen supply of heart muscle:
is the input can not increase in proportion to needs: angina of effort
is in constant need, contributions are reduced: spastic angina.
The decrease in arterial size is secondary to a “collection” by atherosclerotic plaques. (more…)

Cardiac Anatomy

Sunday, November 16th, 2008

Anatomically, the heart was nearly the size of a fist for a weight ranging from 250 to 350g. It lies within the mediastinum, extending from the 2nd to 5th coast intercostal space between the spine and sternum, surrounded by the lungs, its apex resting on the diaphragm.

I-The pericardium:

The outer core is called the pericardium, made of dense and strong, protecting the heart, then two layers, one parietal and other visceral, defining a virtual cavity, where the cells produce pericardial fluid in serous for lubrication.

> (more…)

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