Recalls:
Potassium is the first intracellular cation
Usual biological values:
Extracellular: 3.5-5 mEq / L
Intracellular: 130-140 mEq / L
It achieves a critical gradient in resting membrane potential and maintains the intracellular osmolarity

Entries:
Requirements are 0.5 mmol/kg/24h
The dietary intake is essential.

Outputs:
Digestive secretions, sweat
The bulk of secretion occurs via the urine

Potassium regulation:
Definition:
Pathological state in which the potassium is greater than 5 mEq / L
Clinical signs:
Muscle fatigue, cramps
Laboratory findings: K> 5 mEq / L

Etiology:

  • Failure of excretion (renal failure)
  • Acidosis
  • Crush syndrome
  • Cell lysis
  • Adrenal insufficiency
  • Excess capital



Electrocardiography signs:

  • T wave large, symmetrical, pointed
  • Then signs of disorders of the conductivity (proportional to the increase in serum potassium):
    • Bifid P wave reflecting synchronization of atrial depolarization
    • Enlargement of PR
    • Widening of QRS complexes resulting desynchronization of ventricular depolarization
    • Disappearance of P wave
    • Stop Heart


Treatment and care nurse:
Electrocardiogram monitoring in CM5
Calcium gluconate: Do not lower serum potassium, but allows better tolerance (unless patient on digitalis)
Improving excretion: potassium-sparing diuretics not (furosemide)
Providers excretion: Hemodialysis
Transfers: Insulin + Glucose (intra-cell transfer).
KAYEXALATE: ion exchange resin: orally or by enema
Cathecolamines but carry the risk of tachycardia, salbutamol
If blood samples for electrolyte, avoid placing a tourniquet majorant hyperkalemia, and not too shaken sampling (risk of cell lysis).

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