Blood calcium is available in the free and partly linked to bicarbonate, the citrate and phosphate.
The skeleton is an important reservoir of calcium for the body, it can be removed due to parathyroid hormone, or it may be deposited as vitamin D3.
The normal value in blood is: 8.1 – 10.4 mg / dl
Normal value: in the urine (calciuria) is: 50 to 400 mg/24 h.
The decrease in calcium is caused by:

  • Hypoparathyroidism
  • Reducing the amount of magnesium
  • Reduced food intake
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Intestinal diseases
  • Diarrhea
  • Supply of low-fat
  • Deficiency of bile salts
  • Bone metastases
  • Acute pancreatitis.

Clinical signs of decline are:

  • Low sensitivity in different parts of the body
  • Painful muscle spasms
  • Generalized Seizures
  • Abdominal cramps
  • Spasm at the level of the larynx (choking)

  • Apathy, depression
  • Confusion

The increase of calcium in the blood may be caused by:

  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Carcinoma producing parathyroid hormone-like substances
  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Excessive intake with food
  • Increased sensitivity to vitamin D

  • Hypervitaminosis D
  • Adrenocortical insufficiency of the gland.

The clinical manifestations are:

  • Headache
  • Weakness
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Seizures and coma
  • Increased urine volume
  • Thirst
  • Calculi
  • Renal failure
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Vomiting
  • Ulcer
  • Constipation
  • Acute pancreatitis
  • Itching and skin ulceration.
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