Archive for October, 2009

The diabetic foot wounds

Thursday, October 29th, 2009

Definition
Diagram 1
The foot wounds “do not come only because we are diabetic. A precipitating cause is found in over half the cases, and this cause is very often avoidable through prevention understood.

Diagram 1

Diagram 1

Diagram 2: The plantar perforating ulcer appears as a small crater in the emerging center of an area of hyperkeratosis on the skin that has no tendency to heal. It can begin simply by a light bulb or a crack.

Diagram 2

Diagram 2

Contrary to what its name suggests, this lesion is not painful, but she has a chronic course.

Diagrams 5a, 5b, 5c: It is important to know the initial mechanism by which develops perforating disease because it is the beginning (hypertension => callus) it must intervene to stop the evolution.

Diagram 5a

Diagram 5a

(more…)

Brain care

Thursday, October 29th, 2009

In an AVE or any condition in which the brain is at risk, may be an aneurysm our mission will keep the brain in a normal state as far as possible.
For this we must obviously keep the pressure normal ranges and do we ensure that measures blood flow and oxygen therefore remain intact.
For this we must perform certain actions:
Normotension (eg. PAM 90 to 100 mmHg or systolic level normal for the patient): Adjust fluid and vasoactive agents if necessary.

  • Adequate ventilation (arterial PCO2 approximately 35 mmHg).
  • Maintain adequate oxygen saturation (arterial Po2 from 80 to 100 mmHg): Use the lowest pressure positive end-expiratory possible.
  • (more…)

A vaccine against addiction?

Tuesday, October 27th, 2009

The U.S. government will focus its funding of research on vaccines against cocaine and nicotine, according to an official of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).
The news came late October and has the merit of leaving without voting. As new way of treatment against addiction, a new therapeutic approach. Regarding cocaine, a study published last October in the Archives of General Psychiatry on a cocaine vaccine showed that the euphoric effects of illicit substance could be stuck on 38% of addicts. (more…)

Nursing Ethics and Bioethics

Tuesday, October 27th, 2009

Introduction
The progress that humanity has developed in science, technology and genetic medical treatment during the last two decades of the century and this century have created a gap between the values ethical, legal, human and the same evolution of humanity. In a universal dilemma of ethics and bioethics in humanity, especially in the career of nursing because it carries a set of values in binding regulations, which may perhaps lead to contradictions.
Within the power nurse is not free of this situation, since we are the people who remain in direct contact with the user and their needs and potential. Also, the nurse is part of the team research, of teaching and administration, making regulated progress of science, his commitment to humanity, to life with the environment, ie everything.
The ethics and bioethics leads to pass to the nurse about the various fields either practical or theoretical, and that is where da-binding code of ethics also entails practice from the race in order to make the nurse faces several problems.

Ethics
1.1 ETHICAL. CONCEPT
On the Ethics of Professional training, Guido Gatti said that “… The high professions themselves can become a place of true self, only if done with a social concern …”
Ethics is considered as the science of goodness and badness of human action but if you talk as it already covers profession as the professional setting in a stable manner and honored the service given to other individuals and for personal profit, driven by their own vocation and the dignity which is the individual human. (more…)

Faced with cancer, the risk management planning

Saturday, October 24th, 2009

According to the Inca, 30% of cancers could be prevented with better primary prevention and screening effective. In 2008, 12.4 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million deaths occurred in the world. Forecasts for 2050 suggest a figure of 25 million new patients. 30% of cancers could be prevented. “In reality, said Dr. Christopher Wild, Director General of International Center for Research on Cancer, 80, or 90% of cancers are related to lifestyle, and therefore could be avoided.” These figures are enough to understand the urgency to act early on primary prevention to reduce certain risk factors, and with secondary screening effective.

Targeted actions
Management planning risk is especially vital to combat occupational cancers, potentially preventable. We must therefore put in place targeted measures to employees of companies at risk. The European REACH regulation on Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals, is already in this direction. (more…)

Vomiting and diarrhea in children

Wednesday, October 21st, 2009

What causes vomiting and diarrhea?
Vomiting (throwing up) and diarrhea (frequent, watery bowel movements) can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, foods that are difficult to digest (such as too sweet) foods such as meat or fish that are not well cooked or are still partially raw.

Can vomiting and diarrhea be dangerous for children?
Yes Vomiting and diarrhea can be harmful because they can cause dehydration. Dehydration occurs when the body loses too much fluid. Signs of dehydration are listed in the table below.
Very young babies can become dehydrated quickly, but dehydration is something that can occur at any age.

Signs of dehydration

  • No urine or urine darker than normal
  • Not urinating as often as usual
  • Thirst (babies may show thirst by crying, being irritable and eager to drink when something is offered)
  • Irritability
  • Not eating as well as usual
  • Weight Loss
  • Dry mouth
  • No tears to mourn
  • The soft head (fontanelles) in infants under 18 months is buried.
    Skin that is not as springy as usual

(more…)

Childhood vaccines at all-time high, but not yet equitable access

Wednesday, October 21st, 2009

Reversing a downward trend, immunization rates are now at their highest ever and vaccine development worldwide is booming, according to a new assessment released today by the World Health Organization (WHO), UNICEF and the World Bank.
The State of the world’s vaccines and immunization reports that more infants are being immunized today than ever before – a record 106 million in 2008 – according to new data. At the same time, its authors are calling on donor nations to address a funding gap that leaves millions of children still at risk, particularly in the poorest nations and communities, where preventable diseases take their deadliest toll. The release of new evidence of success in the overall global immunization effort takes place just as many nations are conducting pandemic influenza A (H1N1) immunization campaigns, scoring under the unparalleled role of vaccines in Preventing communicable diseases and the challenges of reaching the most vulnerable communities.
“The influenza pandemic draws attention to the promise and dynamism of vaccine development today,” said Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General, WHO. “Yet it reminds us once again of the obstacles to bringing the benefits of science to people in the poorest nations. We must overcome the divide that separates rich from poor – between those who get life-saving vaccines, and those who do. ” (more…)

A baby of 11 months, hospitalized at the Hospital Necker Sick Children in Paris since Friday, died Sunday morning of influenza A H1N1

Sunday, October 18th, 2009

A baby of 11 months, hospitalized at the Hospital Necker Sick Children in Paris since Friday, died Sunday morning of influenza A H1N1, said the AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hospital DE Paris).

The child “died this morning of influenza A/H1N1 in the pediatric intensive care unit,” says the AP-HP in a statement.

The boy was “a land underlying severe cardiac involvement diagnosed at the age of three months,” he told reporters Sunday evening Professor Philippe Hubert, chief of pediatric intensive care unit at the Necker Hospital. (more…)

Monitoring vital signs of pulse

Saturday, October 17th, 2009

It is the pulse wave of blood that originated in the contraction of the ventricle of the heart and resulting in the expansion and contraction regulate the caliber of the arteries.
The pulse wave represents the return of heartbeat, which is the amount of blood entering the arteries with each ventricular contraction and the adaptation of the arteries, ie, its ability to contract and dilate. It also provides information on the functioning of the aortic valve. The peripheral pulse is readily palpable in feet, hands, face and neck. It really can be felt in any area where a surface artery can be easily compressed against a bony surface. The pulse rate (beats per minute) corresponds to heart rate, which varies with age, sex, physical activity, emotional status, fever, drugs and bleeding.
Age: the pulse undergoes variation from the moment of birth to maturity and old age.
Sex: after puberty the pulse is slower in men than in women.
Physical exercise: pulse rate increases with physical activity. In athletes at rest is often diminished (bradycardia) due to the large size and strength of the heart. Athletes usually maintained a state of bradycardia. (more…)

Respiratory valoracion a child

Sunday, October 11th, 2009

The major respiratory signs are:
1. Tachypnea: Defined as the respiratory rate 60 breaths per minute. Indicates inadequate ventilation or oxygenation. The child responds to hypoxemia or hypercapnia, breathing faster.
2. Cyanosis: Reflects an increase of more desaturated hemoglobin 3-5 g / dl. It can occur in heart disease, respiratory, neurological and metabolic diseases.
3. Muscle Retractions: These occur in any muscle group of the chest may be intercostal, subxiphoid, supraclavicular … indicate inadequate ventilation that requires the use of accessory muscles. They are common to diseases which reduce alveolar ventilation, eg atelactasias.
4. Moan: An audible sound at the end of expiration. It is caused by the child’s respiratory effort against a closed glottis partially or completely. Represents a physiological response that seeks to increase the residual lung volume.
5. Apnea is defined as a respiratory pause of 15 seconds or more, or less than 15 seconds, if accompanied by bradycardia and / or arterial desaturation.
6. Nasal flaring: Movement of both wings of the nose that occurs during inspiration and an increase of respiratory work. (more…)

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