Archive for August, 2008

Pain In The Elderly

Wednesday, August 27th, 2008

2 points to start

  • The prevalence of pain increases with age.
  • This is an emergency in geriatrics because it causes anorexia, malnutrition, insomnia, depression, loss of autonomy syndrome shift (significant risk of suicide in the elderly) patient, and affects the ‘entourage.

There are three levels in pain:
1) Definition of pain: There are many. The most satisfactory is that of the International Association for the Study of Pain proposed in 1979: “Pain is a sensory and emotional experience unpleasant linked to tissue damage existing or potential or described in terms of such damage. The pain has four components: sensory, emotional, cognitive and behavioral.
2) Definition of suffering: The reactions caused by pain correspond to the notion of suffering. An association of phenomena in both physical, moral and psychological involving all the mechanisms emotional, intellectual and instinctive. The pain varies greatly from one individual to another, it depends on the context or the meaning of pain. Thus the pain of post-operative scarring is less painful than those that accompany recurrence of cancer.
3) The total pain: Cecily Saunders has described as “total pain” multiple components of chronic pain: physical, psychological, spiritual and social. Chronic pain is in itself a disease for some. The prediction of continuity leads to anxiety, depression and insomnia which, in turn, exacerbate the physical components of pain. (more…)

The 9 common problems in a blood sample

Wednesday, August 20th, 2008
  • Use of tubes or syringes or wet clean.
  • Inappropriate use of anticoagulants or wrong proportion.
  • Ligature placement for a very long time before the puncture.
  • Perforation of the deep vein with the formation of a hematoma and subsequent tissue injury, which by producing histic input factors in the blood can dilute the sample and also accelerate the process of blood clotting.
  • Removing blood clot too slowly with part of the blood in the syringe or collection tube.
  • (more…)

Medicines: aspirin and adenosine

Tuesday, August 19th, 2008

Acetylsalicylic Acid
Mechanism of action
• antiplatelet agent that inhibits the formation of thromboxane A2. This inhibition reduces reocclusion recurrent coronary events after fibrinolytic therapy, reducing mortality
IAM general.
• Administer as soon as possible to all patients with suspected AMI or ACS, especially candidates
• 160 to 325 mg.
• Relatively contraindicated in patients with active peptic ulcer disease and a history of asthma (more…)

Preventing Childhood Diabetes

Saturday, August 16th, 2008

Diabetes is the second most common chronic disease in childhood. Originally it was just a disease of adults, but with the growing rate of childhood obesity, associated with a sedentary lifestyle and poor eating habits, the incidence of diabetes increased significantly between boys and girls. Diabetes is characterized by an alteration in the production of the hormone insulin by the pancreas or resistance to the action of insulin by the body. It is insulin that helps the body convert sugar (or glucose) into energy, thus promoting the smooth functioning of the human body.
You can prevent this disease from the birth of children. Prevention can start with breastfeeding, avoiding artificial food, rich in sugars desnecesarios during this phase. To prevent childhood obesity and diabetes, it is necessary for children to enjoy healthy eating and physical activity, avoiding leading a sedentary lifestyle, staying long in front of the television, computer or video games. Children need a diet rich in fiber and low in sugar. Ideally, decrease intake of rapidly absorbed sugars such as refined sugar, dark glass and honey, and replace the existing sugar in pasta, and fruits. (more…)

Apnea Sleep

Friday, August 8th, 2008

Syndrome of Sleep Apnea

At apnea: is the cessation of breathing greater than 10 seconds.
In obstructive apnea: is a cessation of breathing by pharyngeal obstruction related to hypotonia of pharyngeal muscles with persistence of respiratory movements.
A central apnea: is the cessation of respiratory drive with stop motion and respiratory flow.
A hypopnea: it decreased ventilation of about 50%.
A syndrome of sleep apnea: it is from 10 apneas + hypopneas per hour of sleep.
A syndrome of severe sleep apnea: is when the apnea-hypopnea index greater than 30%.

9 Apnea Syndrome Sleep button:
4 3 to 5% of the male population,
4 1 to 2% of the female population.
9 Risk factor: hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, car accidents, social gene.


  • Polygraphie respiratory recording of nocturnal SaO 2, respiratory movements, respiratory flow, snoring.
  • Polysomnography: respiratory polygraphy + + EEG + EMG electro-occulogramme.


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